Swelling I halt thee, poison and pain, I destroy thee. In both cures for snakebite and fever, the opening declaration derived from the first chapter of the Book of Genesis places the afflicted person within an ordered, sacred universe. Framed within this religious axiom, the illness is identified as a symptom of the fall. The healing of the person is also therefore a restoration of sacred balance. In addition, some of these early broadsides and manuscripts can shed light on the interrelation of oral tradition, written manuscripts, and printed works.
All of these sources of information tend to inform one another, with oral tradition appearing in writing and written materials serving as the basis for memorized prayers. Frequently, materials change substantially from this process of memorization and recording. For instance, a printed powwow manual from Berks County, Pennsylvania reproduces the snakebite cure found in Helfenstein. This latter example of the cure for snakebite was recorded in in the most celebrated of all powwow manuals printed in Pennsylvania, entitled Der lange Verborgene Freund The Long-Hidden Friend by Johann Georg Hohman, commonly reprinted under the English title Long Lost Friend.
One of his earliest collections of powwow materials, entitled Der Freund in der Noth The Friend in Need , was printed by Johann Ritter in and contained only twenty-four pages of blessings for healing and protection, as well as a section on the use of omens for divination. This work has been used not only for powwow practice, but has also been a favorite of hoodoo practitioners in the south.
The Long Lost Friend contains prayers and rituals for healing, protection, and assistance, as well as some miscellaneous household recipes. Hohman alludes to the controversy in his foreword:. I ask thee once again, friend, male or female, is it not at present an eternal praise for me that I have permitted such books to be printed? Do I deserve no reward from God on account of it?
A lesser-known collection of cures and rituals, compiled by Johann Georg Hohman in , printed by Johann Ritter of the Readinger Adler.
Reading, PA. Scheffer, Perhaps of greatest concern is the way in which this method of learning could erode the sense of gender-neutrality that has so characterized the practice. In a real sense, the literature of powwow can appear as a disembodied corpus of ritual procedures, stripped of its place within a larger system of traditional beliefs.
The scholarly reliance on printed literature for folk-cultural analysis is understandable however, as it is symptomatic of the challenges inherent in the acquisition of primary sources. It is far easier for some to study a book than to establish the trust of a community. In some cases, publications of ritual instructions have also exposed the tradition to the ridicule and sensationalism of journalists, who through scathing editorials have done considerable damage to the image of the culture in the public imagination of America at large. Although his original edition was printed in a typographically unassuming format, two decades later, his book was translated into English and printed by the thousands in Harrisburg by Theodore F.
These Harrisburg editions were frequently enhanced with printing plates borrowed from the iconography of the Fraternal Order of Oddfellows, whose symbolism of three links of chain with the all-seeing-eye of Freemasonry were thought to evoke the Trinitarian contents of the book. These companies specialized in a broad spectrum of popular occult works, and marketed The Long Lost Friend to a national audience.
This was not without substantial restructuring of the image and presentation of the tradition. The trial drew national media attention to the persistence of beliefs associated with powwow in Pennsylvania; however, this media attention was heavily biased, and promoted many negative, false, and culturally insensitive stereotypes about the Pennsylvania Dutch people. What is most obvious in these highly commercialized ventures is that the tradition was being forcibly removed from its cultural and community context of everyday life, and promoted as a self-centered practice used for personal gain.
This loss of the original purpose of powwowing not only corrupts the practice and sullies its image in the public eye, but it also compromises the survival of the tradition, by undermining the integration of ritual into everyday life. One need not be Pennsylvania Dutch or even from the region to appreciate the opportunities that powwow presents to consider the power of ritual to forge healthy and thoughtful connections between our beliefs and daily life. Although present-day applications of powwow have become increasingly focused on healing practices, surprisingly few of the traditions integrating ritual with farming, animal husbandry, gardening, and domestic life have survived.
In one sense, this is because there has been an overall decline in farming, and our domestic transactions have become increasingly automated. One element of human experience, however, that is much more stable and less subject to change is the human need for alleviating suffering—which is another reason why the healing traditions have persisted in an ever-changing world, and all but eclipsed the ritual traditions embracing domestic and agricultural life.
When confronted with the vast array of ritual behaviors recorded among the Pennsylvania Dutch, it is safe to say that on a very basic level, ritual suffused all aspects of human life. From the very beginnings of life, rituals were used at each step leading up to and after childbirth.
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Special written blessings were carried on pregnant mothers for protection and for safe delivery, and similar blessings were created for babies that were placed in cribs in order to prevent or cure illness. A child born with a caul or born posthumous of the father was believed to have greater abilities as powwow practitioners later in life. Baptismal rituals in church were often blended with folk practices, such as the use of rainwater gathered on Good Friday for the baptismal ceremony.http://www.cheesetimes.co.uk/images/arkansas/2163-whatsapp-sohbet.php
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Baptismal water was thought to be particularly effective for the cure of childhood ailments, and was used to ease the pain of teething. To cure colic or excessive crying, rituals that mirrored the birthing process were employed, such as passing the child through a horse collar or a blackberry bush, or around the leg of a table. Figure Eggs laid on Good Friday were once thought to be blessed, and were concealed in the home for protection, as well as used for the removal of illness.
Chores around the house were organized according to the day of the week, and rituals were woven through many aspects of cooking, baking, sewing, ironing, and cleaning. Sewing had strong ritual implications because of the use of thread or cord that had the power not only to mend fabric but to bind things together in a symbolic sense. For instance, clothes should not be mended while a person is wearing them or the person will become thought-bound or will develop enmity. Sewing was not to be done on Ascension Day, and neither should one nail or fasten anything, 90 because it was believed to work against the sacred order of the day, when Christ ascended to heaven.
Fishing, however, was appropriate on this day, because it agreed with the Great Commission, and was a biblical metaphor for proselytizing.
Foodways are necessarily ritual in nature, because of the repetition, timing, and precision necessary for growing crops, raising animals, storing and preserving food, and cooking. Not only were gardens and fields planted according to the relation of the moon to the signs of the zodiac, but also words and phrases could accompany the process for certain plants. One should begin sowing grain on a Friday and end on the following Friday, and if the task is complete beforehand, then the seed-bag should be hung on the fence until Friday arrived.
When hauling in grain, one should grease the hayforks and the axles of the wagon with lard in which Fasnachts have been fried in order that the grain will store well without weevils, and greasing the plow in the same manner will rid the fields and soil of pests that will spoil the crops. When starting yeast for baking, one should write the names of three capable women on a slip of paper or call their names into the mixture to ensure its activity.
Epistle to the Son of the Wolf
The best vinegar is made when one is angry. Animals and livestock were also treated with the same level of interest, receiving blessings for their ailments and to ease difficult transitions. Processing milk and butter was one of the most sensitive of activities, and it was not uncommon to perceive that a grudge or a curse hex would cause milk to spoil or cause butter not to form.
A dishrag, stolen from a person that begrudges you, could be cut into three pieces, and stuffed into three holes bored in the mouth of the bakeoven to correct the problem. The household broom is perhaps one of the best examples of the perception among the Pennsylvania Dutch that the context of everyday life is what empowers an object for use in powwow rituals. According to beliefs held even by some in the present day, the household broom, when leaned against the jamb of the front door, or concealed below the threshold, has the capacity to protect the home from anyone wishing spiritual harm upon the occupants.
A concealed broom of this sort was recently discovered in a Berks County farm house and was placed there by an occupant within the past few decades.
While some have assumed that this custom is related to popular associations of the broom with witchcraft, indeed the opposite is true. The broom represented the home, and had direct contact with the dust in the home, created by everyday activities. This dust was believed to carry some measure of the essence of the house and family, which fostered a wide range of beliefs surrounding the cleaning of the home.
One was not to sweep out the house after dark for fear that the home would be vulnerable to spiritual attack or misfortune. The old broom was customarily the first item placed into a new home, as it brought with it some measure of the essence of the previous dwelling place and established a sense of domestic continuity. Married couples would step over a broom for good luck after the marriage ceremony. Figure A concealed broom in a Berks County farm house, nailed to a floor joist visible by the basement stairs. Private Collection, photo courtesy of Patrick J.
Figure Clockwise from top left : Bible-board with carved symbols, used by a powwow doctor near Emmaus, Lehigh County.
The Gospel of St. Mark.
Courtesy of Jim and Marcia Houston. Even outside of the sacred calendar, the dust from the home was believed to have important useful properties. It was once common to take dust from the four corners of the house and to mix a tiny bit into your coffee or into the flour used to bake bread before one embarked on a long journey in order to avoid homesickness.